Study of Religion at Hatfield: Introducing the Claremont Collection

By Maggie Froelich, Theology Librarian mfroelich@willamette.edu

The affiliation between Willamette University and the Claremont School of Theology continues to move forward, with many CST students, faculty, and staff now located here in Salem.CST at Willamette Logo

The uniting of our two institutions means a sharing of resources, and that’s true in the library, too. Two major benefits to the WU community are a greatly expanded collection of books related to religion, philosophy, ethics, and ministry; and a dedicated Theology Librarian.

The Librarian on Lake Gennesaret, AKA the Sea of Galilee

The Librarian on Lake Gennesaret, AKA the Sea of Galilee

First, let me introduce myself. This summer I joined the library’s Public Services team as the Theology Librarian. I have a PhD in New Testament and Christian Origins, earned at CST. In my academic research I like to read our earliest Christian sources through historical Greco-Roman perspectives. My dissertation analyzed the Gospel of Mark as a response to war and defeat, and lately I’ve been getting really into the ways that the earliest Greek and Roman adherents to Jesus worship might have understood their new devotions. My latest article, “Sacrificed Meat in Corinth and Jesus Worship as a Cult among Cults,” is forthcoming from the Journal of Early Christian History

As a member of the library’s Public Services Division, I officially serve as the liaison librarian to the CST community and will soon begin serving the Religious Studies department, as well. No matter what department you’re in, if you’re interested in ancient Mediterranean history, classical literature, European and Near Eastern polytheism, the Bible, ancient Greek language, any aspect of religious studies, or Netflix’sThe Witcher, I want to talk to you.

But what about the books? As part of CST’s move to Salem, 50,000 volumes from the CST library collection came up here to Hatfield. That collection includes reference works, works by current and past CST faculty, works in Korean, and the collection of the Center for Process Studies, a Claremont faculty institute dedicated to process philosophy and theology. The CST library was southern California’s premier theology library, and the most important books from its collection are now at Willamette, where students, scholars, and ministers can research academic and professional topics in Judaism, Christianity, Islam, and more. You can find the Claremont collection on the first floor of the Hatfield library.

I’ll continue to post here in coming months, highlighting some of the distinctive and interesting features of the Claremont collection, and a great place to start is the reference section. Here are some of the unique reference materials now available to the entire Willamette community:

  • The 20-volume Encyclopedia of Buddhist Arts contains entries and photographs for important artists, architecture, paintings, sculpture, calligraphy, and styles from all over the Buddhist world.
  • Two editions of the Babylonian Talmud, an 18-volume English translation and a 41-volume Hebrew edition, are invaluable additions to our Jewish studies materials.
  • The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Law discusses topics from the early development of Torah to American Supreme Court cases, providing students a foothold in both biblical jurisprudence and issues of religion and state throughout history and across the globe.
  • The second edition of the Encyclopedia of Apocalypticism spans the history of apocalyptic movements from the Hellenistic period to the modern day, covering apocalypticism in Judaism and Christianity, art, and pop culture.

Digital Collections for Remote Research

By Stepanie Milne-Lane, Processing Archivist and Records Manager smilnelane@willamette.edu

Since the ongoing public health crisis forced the Hatfield Library to transition its services in March, the Willamette University (WU) Archives & Special Collections has missed the students, staff, faculty, and community members that frequently walked through our door.

We know that remote research comes with challenges — Not everything is digitized and there is something satisfying about opening a box and systematically going through archival folders. Over the years, the WU Archives & Special Collections has made steady progress in creating digital collections. Each of our four collecting areas boasts digital collections that are ripe for research.

Parsons Sketch

Eunice Parsons, “Sketchbook 1, Image 5,” Willamette University Archives

The WU University Archives & Records has numerous digitized collections that are keyword searchable and hold the key to WU’s history. Popular digitized collections include The Wallulah, 1903-2006 (student yearbook), The Collegian, 1875-2020 (student newspaper), WU Student Handbooks, 1892-2020, and Catalogs and Bulletins, 1860-2007. Also available are materials relating to Freshman Glee, one of Willamette’s longest running – and most beloved – traditions.

A collaborative project of the WU Archives & Special Collections and the Hallie Ford Museum of Art, the Pacific Northwest Artists Archive (PNAA) is a collection of materials related to the careers of artists who are or were active in Oregon and Washington. Digitized PNAA collections include an Eunice Parsons online exhibit that explores and considers the development of Parsons’ more popular style through the lens of her personal sketchbooks.

People exercising in an empty Sparks Pool.

Exercise Class in Sparks Pool, Undated, Campus Photograph Collection.

WU’s extensive Political Papers contain photographs, memorabilia and audiovisual materials of elected individuals representing Oregon at the state and national level. The digitized Norma Paulus Scrapbooks offers a glimpse into Paulus’s campaigns and legislative work.

Rounding our holdings are the Personal Papers, which include manuscript collections, diaries, and the correspondence with a focus on individuals involved in regional missionary work, settling Salem, and developing Willamette University. The digitized Suffrage Era Scrapbook is worth exploring, as it contains poetry, comedic articles and satire, cartoons, articles about women’s suffrage — which celebrates its 100th anniversary in August — and news bulletins about the 1918 Influenza pandemic.

Hatfield Library in 1986

Hatfield Library in 1986

Although our door hasn’t opened and closed as frequently over the past four months, the Archives is anything but quiet. Susan Irwin joined the Hatfield Library team and is spearheading the processing of Senator Mark O. Hatfield’s papers. Staff also completed processing associated with the NHPRC and LSTA grants. We can’t wait to see you, but in the meantime, we hope that our digital collections might come in useful. We are always here to assist with any and all questions you might have. We look forward to having you walk through our door again in the future!


Illuminating Details: Digitizing Rare Books from the Vault

By Doreen Simonsen, Humanities & Fine Arts Librarian dsimonse@willamette.edu

Last year a collection of rare books from the vault of the Hatfield Library was the subject of a course called Digital Humanities Workshop: Voyages of Discovery in the Vault. These books were first or early editions of 18th and 19th-century books about the discovery and exploration of the Pacific Northwest. The exploits of Vitus Bering, Captain James Cook, George Vancouver, Lewis & Clark, and others were described in these books, often by the explorers themselves. Many of these books have also been digitized in various online collections, such as the Internet Archive, Google Books, HathiTrust Digital Library, the Biodiversity Heritage Library, and more sites.

As the class worked with these digital versions, they soon learned the differing qualities of digitization in the various collections. Students used digital collections, as well as their own photographs of the actual rare books from the vault, to create online exhibits based on these works. Most digitized sources were fine for this purpose, but some of the digitized works were created from poorly photographed microfilm. Here is an example that shows the worst features of digitized microfilm, uneven page layout, etc. This map at the end of the book is unreadable and broken up over several pages.

Fédix, P A.

Fédix, P A. L’orégon, Et Les Côtes De L’océan Pacifique Du Nord: Aperçu Géographique, Statistique Et Politique : Avec Une Carte Du Pays D’après Les Documens Les Plus Récens. Paris: Amyot, 1846. Internet resource.

Luckily the Hatfield Library owned the print copies of these books, and we were able to create superior digital scans of some of them. The maps included in many of these books were central to the focus of the course, so we were able to request that the library’s digital production lab create high-resolution scans of our original print copy of this book from 1846.

L'orégon Et Les Côtes De L'océan Pacifique Du Nord

Fédix, P A. L’orégon Et Les Côtes De L’océan Pacifique Du Nord: Aperçu Géographique, Statistique Et Politique, Avec Une Carte Du Pays D’après Les Documens Les Plus Récens. Paris: Librairie de Amyot, 1846. Print.

L'orégon Et Les Côtes De L'océan Pacifique Du Nord Now the entire map can be viewed at a glance. A wonderful bonus to this new scan is the ability to capture details of each half of the map by right-clicking with your mouse to “View Image”. Doing this will open the high-resolution tiff (Tagged Image File Format) file of that page. Here is a small detail from the left page of the map showing the author’s vision of the Mouth of the Columbia River being a focal point for all international commerce coming to the Oregon Territory in the 1850’s.

 

 

Heures De Simon Vostre a L'usage De Langres

Pigouchet, Philippe. [Heures De Simon Vostre a L’usage De Langres]. Paris: Printed by Philippe Pigouchet for Simon Vostre, 1502.

Book of Hours printed by Philippe Pigouchet for Simon Vostre

Sample page from Heures De Simon Vostre a L’usage De Langres. 1502.

Another treasure from our vault that was recently scanned in high resolution was a printed book of hours from 1502. Only the Bibliothèque national de France (the National Library of France) and Willamette University own copies of this edition of a Book of Hours printed by Philippe Pigouchet for Simon Vostre, a Parisian publisher.
Books of Hours are prayer books developed for the use of the laity in their private devotions.  They were the bestsellers of the Middle Ages, often adorned with hand-painted illustrations, called illuminations, and printed on vellum, like our own manuscript copy entitled Praecis Piae (Pious Prayers).  Printed Books of Hours included numerous woodblock illustrations in order to compete with illuminated manuscript versions.  Our printed book of hours is resplendent with various kinds of images – on each page!  On this page, showing and describing the suffering of St. Sebastian, the text is surrounded by woodcuts of symbolic animals and grotesques.

A recent graduate in Art History, Kendall Matthews, wrote her senior thesis about the woodblock prints of grotesques that she found in our printed book of hours. Entitled “Grotesques Outside the Margins: A Study of the Cultural Influences of Marginalia and Grotesques Through Heures de Simone Vostre a l’usage de Langres,” her thesis explored the deeper symbolic meanings of a selection of grotesque images from this book, as she demonstrated in this image from her thesis presentation video. (Used with permission of the author).

Morality and Violence

Thanks to the work of the Library’s Digital Production Lab, rare books from the vault are getting a new life in digital form, providing students and scholars from around the world with amazing access to the finer details of these works.


A “New” Chant for Christmastide

By Doreen Simonsen
Humanities and Fine Arts Librarian

Image Comparing 15th Century Chant Manuscripts

Somewhere in Europe in the 15th century, a choir sang an Alleluia followed by an Offertory on the Feast of the Holy Innocents on December 28th. A page from a book that contained parts of these songs was discovered last summer in the Vault of the Mark O. Hatfield Library. We do not know who donated this manuscript page to the library, but through the help of faculty members in the Music and Classical Studies Departments at Willamette University and elsewhere, we have been able to reveal its secrets and show how it relates to the holiday season.

Image of Medieval & Renaissance Manuscripts

Psalter
France, Paris, between 1495 and 1498
MS M.934 fol. 141r
Morgan Library and Museum

This large sheet of vellum (parchment prepared from animal skin) is 20 ⅞ inches high by 15 ⅔ inches wide and has neumatic (plainsong) notation on a four-line staff with texts in Latin. Chants are written in neumes, which are notes sung on a single syllable.

There is a large Illuminated initial in the lower left-hand corner of second page. (To see how this page and illumination was created, please watch this excellent video, Making Manuscripts, from the Getty Museum.) The reason for the large size of this page was that it was meant to be read by several members of a choir at one time. The expense of creating manuscript books meant that it would be more economical to create one large book for several people to use rather than several smaller books for each person in the choir to hold.

Here is an illustration from a Psalter (A book of Psalms) showing a group of clerics singing from a large book with musical notation, similar in size and format to our manuscript.

Image of manuscript fragmentIdentifying the Texts:
Professors Robert Chenault and Ortwin Knorr of Willamette University’s Department of Classical Studies identified the texts found on these two pages.

This first page (or recto page) contains the following words and word fragments:
…tis eius; laudate eum in firmamen-

And the second page (or verso page) contains the rest of the phrase:
to virtutis eius.

These phrases combine to form the end of this Bible Verse:
Alleluia. Laudate Dominum in sanctis eius; laudate eum in firmamento virtutis eius.

 

 

Image of manuscript fragmentPsalm 150, Verse 1 (King James Version) Praise ye the Lord. Praise God in his sanctuary: praise him in the firmament of his power.

At the bottom of the second (verso) page, they identified the words: Anima no- which Dr. Richard Robbins (University of Minnesota-Duluth) identified as belonging to this verse:

Anima nostra sicut passer erepta est de laqueo venantium; laqueus contritus est, et nos liberati
sumus.

Psalm 123, Verse 7 (King James Version) Our soul is escaped as a bird out of the snare of the fowlers: the snare is broken, and we are escaped.

The two texts are separated by a red abbreviation of the word Offertory.

Identifying the Music
Professor Hector Aguëro of the Music Department at Willamette University shared images of our manuscript with his colleague Professor Richard Robbins, Director of Choral Activities at the University of Minnesota-Duluth and a scholar of choral music, especially Italian sacred music of the early Baroque.

Dr. Robbins identified our manuscript as possibly being part of a Gradual, which is a book containing chants used in the Catholic Mass throughout the year. Robbins identified the first text and melody as the end of an alleluia verse, specifically Laudate Deum (mode IV). The second melody is an offertory on the text Anima Nostra (mode II).

Both of these chants can be found in the Liber Usualis, a book of commonly used Gregorian chants in the Catholic tradition.

Image of Alleluia Chant

The notation on the library’s manuscript starts at the red line in the Alleluia above, and it ends at the red line in the Offertory Anima No|stra below.

Image of Anima Nostra Chant

You can hear a performance and follow the texts of both chants here:

Alleluia, Laudate Deum
Offertory: Anima Nostra

The text of our missal differs from that of the Liber Usualis because of its early date. It was likely written in the 15th century, and, as Dr. Robbin explains, that means it was written before the Council of Trent (1545–63) codified the Catholic Mass and the order of the chants. There was a great deal of variety in Missals before the Council of Trent, so one cannot be sure when these melodies were used during the liturgical year. However, according to Dr. Robbins, these tunes match the tunes that appear in the Holy Innocents / Epiphanytide sections in post-Trent missals.

Ornate illuminated letter D shows Jesus riding Donkey colt

Dr. Robbins also pointed out that the illuminated letter A is ornate, which would have also been more appropriate for a Christmas use. The fancy illuminated letter A is probably also the reason we only have just one sheet from this gradual. These pages could contain ornate decorations and for this reason, they were frequently removed from graduals and treated as single artworks. Here you can see similar gradual pages from the Metropolitan Museum of Art. And this page shows the entry of Jesus into Jerusalem on Palm Sunday, all within the large initial D.

Teaching with a 15th Century Manuscript
The best thing about discovering this “new” manuscript in the vault was being able to share it with the students and faculty of Willamette University. In September 2019, as part of his Music History I course, Professor Aguëro had his Music History students transcribe the music written on the library’s Chant manuscript. Here you can see them displaying their work. It was such a delight to have students work with a manuscript from the library’s Rare Books Collection.

Image of Professor Professor Aguëro and his Music History I class

From left to right: Ethan Frank, Matt Elcombe, Professor Aguëro, Sam Strawbridge, Kate Grobey, and Sophie Gourlay

Acknowledgments

Many thanks to Professors Robert Chenault and Ortwin Knorr of the Department of Classical Studies and Professor Hector Aguëro of the Department of Music at Willamette University, and especially to Professor Richard Robbins, Director of Choral Activities at the University of Minnesota-Duluth. Their combined scholarship helped us explicate the text and illuminate the value and beauty of this seasonal manuscript.

 

Bibliography

Abbey of Solesmes. The Liber Usualis 1961. Internet Archive, http://archive.org/details/TheLiberUsualis1961. Accessed 27 Nov. 2019.

Anima Nostra Sicut Passer Erepta Est. YouTube, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2UrXb2QUSsI. Accessed 27 Nov. 2019.

“Bartolomeo Di Domenico Di Guido | Manuscript Leaf with Entry into Jerusalem on Palm Sunday in an Initial D, from a Gradual | Italian | The Met.” The Metropolitan Museum of Art, https://www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/469046. Accessed 27 Nov. 2019.

Chant Manuscript, ca. 15th Century. https://libmedia.willamette.edu/commons/item/id/163. Accessed 27 Nov. 2019.

Council of Trent. Sacrosancti et œcumenici Concillii Tridentini Pavlo III, Ivlio III, et Pio IV, PP. MM. celebrati canones et decreta. Apud Cornab Egmond et Socios, 1644.

“Council of Trent | Definition, Summary, Significance, Results, & Facts.” Encyclopedia Britannicahttps://www.britannica.com/event/Council-of-Trent. Accessed 27 Nov. 2019.

Gregorian Chant Notation. http://www.lphrc.org/Chant. Accessed 27 Nov. 2019.

Laudate Deum – Gregorian Chant, Catholic Hymns. YouTube, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kaVnBFhiwqU. Accessed 27 Nov. 2019.

Making Manuscripts. YouTube, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nuNfdHNTv9o&feature=youtu.be. Accessed 27 Nov. 2019.

Psalter, MS M.934 Fol. 141r – Images from Medieval and Renaissance Manuscripts – The Morgan
Library & Museum. http://ica.themorgan.org/manuscript/page/120/77003. Accessed 27 Nov. 2019

Robbins, Richard. “Re: Newly discovered 15th c. Chant manuscript.” Received by Hector Aguero, 22 Aug. 2019.


The Northwest Collection

Guest post by Carol Drost, Associate University Librarian for Technical Services.

The Northwest Collection was established in 1997 through a gift from Nancy B. Hunt and consisted of materials collected by her husband, Kenneth J. Hunt. Kenneth was a Willamette alum who graduated in 1942 with a degree in sociology. Throughout his life, he collected books, pamphlets, and periodicals that focused on Oregon or the Pacific Northwest as their subject matter.

Ladd & Bush QuarterlyThe majority of these titles are early and mid-20th century local historical accounts of Oregon towns and institutions, autobiographies, and fiction and poetry. Many of the books are signed by the author.

The Hatfield Library continues to add materials to this collection, building upon the rich foundation that Kenneth Hunt established. The library acquires not only recently published titles, such as Standing Tall: the Lifeway of Kathryn Jones Harrison, but also historical titles such as Ken Kesey’s Spit in the Ocean series, which was published in the 1970s. 

The materials found in the Northwest Collection can be located through the library’s online catalog, and are in a closed stack location. All library users are welcome to use the materials by appointment, from 9-4, Monday through Friday. Contact a reference librarian for further assistance.