The Return of Jason Lee

Originally published on December 8, 2015.

Guest post written by Grace Pochis, History Department Archives Intern, Class ’17

The Return of Jason Lee

Jason Lee Image

Article from scrapbook compiled by Lee’s son-in-law, F.H. Grubbs, included in the Willamette University and Northwest Collection.

Jason Lee was a well-traveled man, especially considering the transportation of his era. Born in Canada in 1803, he was educated and ordained as a Methodist minister in Massachusetts before undertaking a trip to the Oregon Territory to found and lead the Oregon Mission from 1834 to 1842. Lee would later become a founder of Willamette University and member of its original Board of Directors. During his stint as director of the Oregon Mission, he journeyed overland to the East coast and back multiple times for fundraising, traveling around the Northeast and swinging down to Washington D.C. to ask Congress for financial support. He died in 1845 while on one of these fundraising expeditions back East, but, well, while it delayed his travels, it didn’t stop him. His ashes were buried in Eastern Canada near his birthplace, and remained there for more than fifty years. But around 1900, a campaign to return Jason Lee’s ashes to Salem began to appear in Oregon newspapers. Through a scrapbook of circa-1900 newspaper clippings created by Jason Lee’s son-in-law, held in the Willamette University Archives, we can follow along with this campaign.

Impassioned arguments in these editorials declared that Lee deserved to rest in Oregon and that Oregon ought to have its “foremost pioneer.” As the undated (ca. 1906) editorial “Memory of Lee: Services planned in honor of great Methodist Pioneer Missionary” puts it, “…it is very fitting that his body should be returned, with impressive ceremonies, to the bosom of the soil he loved and redeemed.” Benefactors succeeded in moving Lee’s remains to Portland, where they languished for a while for want of someone willing to move the remains down to Salem, leading to a renewed campaign. A 1905 headline reads, “Body Should Be Interred With State Honors: Protest Against the Remains of Jason Lee Lying Longer in a Vault.” We know that by spring 1906, Lee’s body was anticipated to be transferred to Salem, sparking pomp, circumstance, and memorial services. Willamette University ended its commencement exercises a day early in order to host a celebration, and all of Salem was encouraged to join the reflection on June 14, 1906. One newspaper directed church congregations to join Willamette at a morning memorial of Jason Lee as missionary and church man, then in the afternoon to host their own events, “for the purpose of commemorating Lee’s illustrious pioneer services.”

The occasion was, and if the newspaper rhetoric is any indication, an opportunity to reflect on and celebrate Oregon, the United States, and the (by now) assured permanence of the colonizers in Oregon. The ‘Memory of Lee’ editorial demonstrates this celebratory mood, saying, “This service, of course, will glorify Lee’s inestimable efforts in behalf of the state in giving to the union the great commonwealth of Oregon.” The editorials project the feeling that the physical return of Lee was considered of tantamount importance for returning his memory to a “rightful place” of honor. These editorialists do not desire to return to the past– in almost every description of the missionaries they highlight how difficult life was–but they do exhibit the desire to “rescue” Jason Lee and to interact with their past by writing “the final chapter in the history of an adventurous life of an an adventurous time” [Source: the undated editorial “In memory of Jason Lee”].

From the way the authors talk about their history and the way they talk about time, one gets the sense that the writers did not completely understand where they fit in the Manifest Destiny, “Mayflower of the West” narrative of the colonization of Oregon. They deeply felt a religious and historical significance in the colonization of Oregon, but they seem to feel disconnected from their past. In these editorials, they repeatedly try to imagine a life that was only 60 years ago, yet, thanks to the influx of white colonizers, the decimation and removal of Native people, and the incorporation of Oregon as a U.S. state, vastly different than their own. They grapple with the timeline of how they got from then to ‘now’, often emphasizing the distance of their present from the past. One author calls Jason Lee’s era “those far-away years,” and another says that the missionaries began “at the beginning. The country was as new as that other Garden of Eden when Adam capitulated to Eve.” Another author proposes a way to conceptualize the period of first Methodist colonization, claiming, “The year 1844 is an early date–I hope no one will say that it was only sixty years ago. An event cannot occur before the beginning of things, and 1844 is so near the beginning of things in Oregon…” Faced with the mythical intangibility of “the beginning of things,” Lee’s remains perhaps brought these early 20th century colonists a welcome tangible connection to the figures who had shaped their present.

As planned, in 1906 Jason Lee was interred at the Lee Mission Cemetery next to his first and second wives and infant son. A marble slab over 6 feet tall marks his grave, inscribed with Bible verses and a description of his life. As Jason Lee’s travels came to an end, the lively newspaper conversation on Oregon’s colonial past continued. My next blog post will examine other parts of colonial Oregon’s conversation on “the beginning of things” at the turn of the 20th century.

Jason Lee’s grave marker. Photo taken April 26, 1940. Image credit: Salem Online History.

More on this topic can be found in the Willamette University and Northwest Collection, and, specifically, the Francis H. Grubbs collection on Jason Lee series within the Willamette University and Northwest Collection, or by visiting Willamette University’s Archives and Special Collections.


Extended Study Hours

During finals week, the Hatfield Library is open extra hours to help students studying for finals exams. A reference librarian is available for research help until 5 p.m. and we will begin putting out cookies and coffee during Finals around 10 p.m. They’ll be available until they run out if you need a brain food break! Don’t forget the printer in the 24-hour Fish Bowl.
cookies and coffee image

  • Thurs, May 9: 7:45 a.m. – 3 a.m.
  • Fri, May 10: 7:45 a.m. – 3 a.m.
  • Sat, May 11: 9 a.m. – 3 a.m.
  • Sun, May 12: 9 a.m. – 3 a.m.
  • Mon, May 13: 7:45 a.m. – 3 a.m.
  • Tues, May 14: 7:45 a.m. – 3 a.m.
  • Wed, May 15: 8 a.m. – 5 p.m.
  • Thur, May 16: 8 a.m. – 5 p.m.
  • Fri, May 17:  8 a.m. – 5 p.m.
  • Sat, May 18:  Noon – 4 p.m.
  • Sun, May 19:  10 a.m. – 3 p.m.

Faculty Colloquium: Raechelle Mascarenhas

Please join us on Friday, April 26th, at 3 p.m. in the Hatfield Room for our final Faculty Colloquium of this semester.

Presenter: Raechelle Mascarenhas, Associate Professor of Economics Raechelle Mascarenhas Picture

Title: Do Foreign Aid Contributions Foster Cooperation and Generosity Amongst Donors?

Abstract:

This talk provides an overview of my research into two aspects of the motivations underlying foreign aid donations: cooperation and generosity.

The first part of the presentation explores whether donors cooperate when giving foreign aid to developing countries. The data on foreign aid flows is disaggregated by sector (such as education, health and governance) to examine if the sector receiving aid induces donors to coordinate or free-ride. Two allocation processes are tested: non-cooperative (Nash-Cournot) and cooperative (Lindahl). The empirical analysis strongly rejects the cooperative Lindahl model with evidence of most donors adhering to the non-cooperative Nash-Cournot model.

The second part of the presentation provides an analysis of the impact of systemic financial crises on foreign aid flows through direct bilateral transfers to developing countries and channeled through multilateral institutions. The study reveals that both bilateral and multilateral aid experience statistically significant declines after donor financial crises. However, multilateral aid experiences more severe and prolonged declines than bilateral aid. This is perhaps because donors, in the aftermath of the crises, tend to prioritize their strategic interests by not cutting back bilateral aid as much as multilateral aid. Donors also tie bilateral aid to purchases of goods and services to businesses in the donor country and this tends to reduce the concessionality and effectiveness of foreign aid.

Students are welcome and coffee and treats will be provided. We look forward to seeing you there.

Bill Kelm and Daniel Rouslin
Faculty Colloquium Coordinators


Faculty Colloquium: Sue Koger

Please join us on Friday, April 19th, at 3 p.m. in the Hatfield Room for our tenth Faculty Colloquium of this semester.

Presenter: Sue Koger, Professor Psychology

Title: Teaching Psychology for Sustainability: The why and how

Abstract: The behavioral sciences can make vital contributions to environmental sustainability efforts, as relevant basic and applied psychological research has grown considerably over the past dozen years. Recently, conservation biologists, environmental policy makers, and other experts have recognized the importance of engaging with experts on human behavior (i.e., psychologists) in order to effect behavioral change in a sustainable direction. Lagging behind this trend, however, is the curricular integration of psychology and environmental sustainability in most psychology or environmental science/studies programs (ESS). Consequently, most psychology majors are graduating with no background in applying the field to promoting sustainability, and ESS students lack explicit education focused on understanding and changing human behavior. This talk provides an introduction to the rationale for integrating sustainability topics into psychology courses, and psychological concepts into ESS classes, along with some strategies for doing so at the level of individual course units as well as full courses.

Note: Prof. Sue Koger has co-authored textbooks and numerous articles on Psychology for Sustainability, and is also the co-author of https://www.teachgreenpsych.com/, a website of Instructor Resources created to assist instructors from various departments (Psychology, Environmental Science, Environmental Studies, Sustainability Studies, etc.).

Students are welcome and coffee and treats will be provided. We look forward to seeing you there.

Bill Kelm and Daniel Rouslin
Faculty Colloquium Coordinators


Faculty Colloquium: Ashley Nixon

Please join us on Friday, April 12th, at 3 p.m. in the Carnegie Building for our ninth Faculty Colloquium of this semester.

Presenter: Ashley Nixon, Associate Professor of Human Resource Management and Organizational Behavior Ashley Nixon
Title: Globalizing Emotional Labor: How to Account for Cultural Differences?

Abstract: Increasingly, work stress and its negative consequences are receiving attention as the costs to individuals, organizations, and our society mount. Emotional labor, or process byIncreasingly, work stress and its negative consequences are receiving attention as the costs to individuals, organizations, and our society mount. Emotional labor, or process by which employees manage their emotions to meet organizationally mandated emotional display rules (Hochschild, 1983), is a work stressor that is associated with a range of cognitive, affective, and behavioral strains for employees. Emotional labor is particularly relevant and detrimental for service workers, an occupational group that is rapidly growing globally.

In this talk, I will discuss a stream of research examining emotional labor in cross-cultural contexts. Several projects, conducted with a global research team, examine the impact of national, organizational, and individual level cultural differences on the emotional labor-strain process in the United States and Turkey. Cultural values at each level impact and interact to impact service employee strain. Additionally, a new research initiative developed with the support of WU, AGSM, and the Fulbright Specialist program will be discussed.

Students are welcome and coffee and treats will be provided. We look forward to seeing you there.

Note: There will also be a special TGIF reception following the lecture that will be open to faculty from all schools. This is the third TGIF event this semester with Colloquium speakers from across the University. These opportunities for cross-University gathering and conversation are sponsored by the Office of the Provost and Senior Vice President.

Bill Kelm and Daniel Rouslin
Faculty Colloquium Coordinators


Capturing WU’s Scholarly Output

Guest post written by Bill Kelm, Hatfield Library Systems Librarian

Everyone knows that the library collects books, journals, and DVDs, but did you know that we also collect some of the scholarly output of Willamette’s students, faculty and staff? The library maintains the Academic Commons, a virtual clearinghouse for student research and digital scholarship at Willamette University. The Commons represents an evolving set of services and digital collections that are a resource for Willamette faculty and students and for members of the extended community. Some of the collections are open to the public but others are limited to current WU students, faculty and staff.

Students can also access past print theses in the Archives as well.

Student research ranges from senior theses, publications, grant projects, performances, films, journals, and online exhibits. Highlights include the Senior Thesis Collections and the Willamette Sports Law Journal.  Some collections like the law journal are open to the public and indexed in the library catalog.  Most of the theses collections are restricted to current Willamette University users; over thirty departments have theses collections in the Commons.  Faculty in some departments require students to submit their senior thesis to the Academic Commons and other departments identify outstanding theses and recommend those student researchers submit their theses to the Commons.

Reviewing some of the theses other students have submitted in the past can be a great way for current students to get a sense of what a senior thesis in their major might look like and what kinds of subjects might make appropriate topics. A number of departments have decided to scan their past theses as well; the Biology Department probably has the largest collection with some theses going to back the 1940’s and 50’s.

Submitting a thesis is not the same as adding a new post to Facebook so when students submit their works, the documents will not automatically appear in the Academic Commons.  All of our librarians monitor the incoming theses in their specific subject areas. They work to ensure the accuracy of the the metadata (subjects, abstracts, etc.) before they officially release the paper into the Academic Commons. The level or quality of the work found in the Commons can vary greatly.  As mentioned previously, some departments add only what they consider honors work and others add all the theses written by their students.

The library is also encouraging Willamette faculty to publish in Open Access journals. When faculty do this, the library can then add their work to the Common’s Faculty Publications section for that department. Open Access Journals LogoRight now four departments have Faculty Publications in the Academic Commons. While many faculty might want to make sure they are getting their papers in ResearchGate or Academia, we want to make sure we can legally capture their research in Willamette’s Academic Commons.  Many of the publisher agreements that faculty sign only allow pre-print copies of their work to be placed in local digital repositories.

Take some time to checkout the Academic Commons.  Students, if you do not see your major or department represented, let us know and we will be happy to check with faculty in that department. Faculty, let us know if you want your department included in the ever expanding and increasingly important Academic Commons.


MOHL Research Awards

If you are a student and have written and researched an excellent paper, why not submit your paper for consideration for the MOHL Research Award?  Sponsored by the Hatfield Library, this award recognizes and rewards Willamette undergraduate students in any discipline who demonstrate outstanding research using library and information resources in writing a paper. Up to two awards of $500 each are available.

Student papers written in the sophomore or junior year as part of regular class work are eligible to be considered for this award. The paper must be 7 pages or more in length and written in the current academic year (fall 2018/spring 2019). Papers done as a senior project but in the junior year are excluded. Award Announcement Image

Papers need to be submitted by the last day of finals May 14, 2019 at 5:00 pm. The faculty mentor who worked with the student during the production of the paper is asked to submit a statement of support and a copy of the assignment.  Faculty, please encourage your best student writers/researchers to apply!

For complete details and instructions see: http://library.willamette.edu/about/award


Faculty Colloquium: Henry Walker

Please join us on Friday, April 5th, at 3 p.m. in the Hatfield Room for our eighth Faculty Colloquium of this semester.

Presenter: Henry M. Walker, Class of 1959 Distinguished Visiting Chair, Willamette UniversityHenry Walker Image

Title: Lab-based Pedagogy with Collaboration: An Example of a Flipped Classroom

Abstract: Much current discussion among college and university faculty focuses upon the notion of a flipped classroom. But how might that pedagogy be implemented in actual introductory courses, particularly in the sciences? This talk will first review several different pedagogical approaches commonly used in STEM fields, and then expand upon a workshop-style pedagogy.

At Grinnell College, for example, all introductory courses in biology, computer science, statistics, and psychology follow this workshop style pedagogy that integrates class lecture/discussion with laboratory experiments. Some sections of introductory chemistry and physics follow a similar approach.

To illustrate the general approach, the talk will highlight the pedagogy used in introductory computer science courses at Grinnell College, where students complete about 47 laboratory exercises, and I lecture about 4 hours per month (mostly in 5-10 minute segments). Altogether, these courses provide fine examples of one type of flipped classroom. As will be discussed, the approach pushes active learning to an extreme, and our experience suggests that this pedagogy allows us to cover about 20% more material than our traditional approach (with separate lectures and labs), and our students perform better on tests. The approach also seems to help student recruitment and retention.

Students are welcome and coffee and treats will be provided. We look forward to seeing you there.

Bill Kelm and Daniel Rouslin
Faculty Colloquium Coordinators


What’s in a Claim?

Originally published on November 17, 2015.

Guest post written by Grace Pochis, History Department Archives Intern, Class ’17

What’s in a Claim? Evolution of “The First University in the West”

From its inception Willamette has, as with all colleges, been concerned with distinguishing itself from its neighbors. In its early days this was vital, while the university struggled financially. Willamette had been founded with the explicit charge to find itself an evangelical Christian patron, but the Methodist Church could not adequately defray the University’s expenses, and sections IV through IX of the University’s bylaws, written 1842, deal with how benefactors could pay subscriptions, or endowments, of fifty through five hundred dollars (Hines, 147-150). A donation of fifty dollars would earn the donor “a certificate of patronage” which entitled the recipient to “a voice in all the business of the society relating to the institution during his natural life” (Hines, 147) A donation of five hundred dollars, which was the maximum the founders conceived of, entitled the donor to a perpetual scholarship at Willamette–that is, that they or their heirs could attend Willamette without tuition (Hines, 148). At the time, five hundred dollars would have paid tuition for a year (Gatke, 311). These donations, the constitution specified, were to be paid at least one third in cash orders, and the remainder in “tame neat cattle, lumber, labor, wheat, or cash.” (Hines, 150). The perpetual scholarships were a losing venture; the initial $500 investment, quickly spent, robbed Willamette of much-needed tuition money for years to come (Gatke, 311). In fact, the last perpetual scholarship was cashed in the late 1960s, after which Willamette reclaimed it.

Attracting paying scholars by distinguishing itself from neighboring colleges has therefore been a priority for Willamette since its inception. By the turn of the 20th century, Willamette wanted to advertise its longevity, but oscillated on how to accurately compare its age to that of other colleges. Yearly bulletins printed by Willamette between 1865 and 2009 acted as both commemorations of the past year and advertisements to potential applicants, and so are a good medium to track the changes in Willamette’s self-presentation over time. The 1920-21 bulletin says, “Willamette University is not only the oldest college on the Pacific slope of the United States, but its connection with the early history of this region is perhaps more vital than that of any other institutions that has sprung up on the far western soil” (my emphasis). Ten years later Willamette had opted for the affirmative version of that claim, saying, ‘Willamette University, with one possible exception, is the oldest institution of higher learning west of the Mississippi River. The 1931-32 bulletin avoided that “possible exception” by switching its range, saying, “Willamette University is the oldest institution of higher learning west of the Missouri River.” In 1935-6 the bulletin names the affiliation of this school, perhaps in an effort to discredit it: “Willamette University, with the exception of a Catholic school in Missouri, is the oldest institution of higher learning west of the Mississippi River.” By 1947-48, Willamette had done away with such a detailed statement and adopted the slogan,“Oldest Institution of Higher Learning West of the Rockies”. By 1957, according to a photo in the corresponding bulletin, a sign on Willamette property declared, “Willamette University, Founded by Jason Lee and the Early Christian Pioneers, 1842, The Oldest University in the West.” Through the 1960’s, 70s, and 80s, Willamette set aside its claims of longevity to focus on other forms of advertising, color printing and much denser use of photos. In 1994, however, the claim resurfaces with a reformulation of who Willamette is, saying, “Willamette University, the oldest college in the west” (my emphasis). And in 2003 we see the current Willamette compass logo for the first time with a reversion to use of “university,” but now with a different conception of primacy: “The First University in the West” underneath. This remains our current claim to fame, but with the past as our guide, we can expect continued revisions to how Willamette advertises its age vis a vis other universities.

Information Sign Image

Information sign, northwest corner of campus, ca. 1950. Image from the Campus Photograph Collection, Willamette University Archives and Special Collections (WP 1323)

Written by Grace Pochis, History Department Archives Intern, Class ’17

Sources:

Gatke, Robert Moulton. “Chronicles of Willamette: The Pioneer University of the West.” Portland: Binfords & Mort, 1943.

Hines, Gustavus. “Oregon and Its Institutions; Comprising a Full History of the Willamette University, The First Established on the Pacific Coast.” New York: Carlton & Porter, 1868.


Faculty Colloquium: Leslie Dunlap

Please join us on Friday, March 15th, at 3 p.m. in the Hatfield Room for our eighth Faculty Colloquium of this semester.

Presenter: Leslie Dunlap, Continuing Professor in History
Title: Feminism and the Racial Politics of Protection

Abstract: Rights. Freedom. Choice. Liberation. Consent. These are familiar feminist keywords of the 20th and early 21st centuries. In the late nineteenth century United States one of those keywords was “protection.” According to many accounts, 19th-century feminists asserted autonomy and rights by rejecting protection as a code word for patriarchal control. I argue instead that many women mobilized around the concept of protection in order to expose violence and inequality in American homes, politics, and institutions. Protection meant different things to women depending on race, however, and was a point of contestation as well as coalition. In this talk, I excavate the historical roots of the concept of protection in marriage (husbands pledged to protect wives and children), slavery (proponents of slavery argued that enslavers protected those they enslaved), and colonization (missionaries and the US government promised to protect Native Americans).

Feminist Protesters Image Then I trace women’s different use of protection. White women tapped into protection’s roots in slavery and the Confederacy, establishing the precedent for 20th century segregationists who organized around the idea of protecting white children and homes against those they cast as federal, foreign, and black invaders. Black women drew on the 14th Amendment and equal protection under the law to demand protection of their homes and families against sexual and racial violence. Native American women turned to treaties to protect their land, families, and sovereignty. My research is on 19th-century social movements, but my interest is now: how do movements today mobilize around protection, and can we see the legacy of earlier movements?

Students are welcome and coffee and treats will be provided. We look forward to seeing you there.

Bill Kelm and Daniel Rouslin
Faculty Colloquium Coordinators