The Call of Public Service

Mark O. Hatfield’s lengthy career of representing Oregon is the subject of the Oregon Historical Society’s traveling exhibit now on display in Hatfield Library, 2nd floor.  The Call of Public Service: The Life and Legacy of Mark O. Hatfield explores his career and highlights the issues Hatfield championed including healthcare, education, equal rights, the environment and world peace.  The exhibit is on display through October 18, 2021.

Hatfield graduated from Willamette University in 1943. After serving in the U. S. Navy during World War II, he completed a Master’s Degree in political science at Stanford University, then returned to Willamette University as an assistant professor and dean of students. Hatfield began his political career at the age of 28, when he was elected to the Oregon State House of Representatives in 1950. During his forty-six year career, he served as Oregon’s Secretary of State, Governor, and U.S. Senator.

Hatfield, pictured to the right in front of the Oregon State Capitol, donated his papers to Willamette University Archives. The collection includes materials from his time as Oregon Secretary of State and governor through retirement. The bulk of the collection relates to his time in the U. S. Senate documenting his legislative work, constituent services, communications and media, and campaign efforts. The large collection is currently being processed and will open to researchers on July 12, 2022. For more information on the collection, contact

Faculty Colloquium: Peter Harmer

Please join us on Thursday, February 25, at 4:10 p.m. at this URL:

for our fourth Faculty Colloquium of the semester.

Title: Medicine as political camouflage in Islamic-Israeli sports confrontations: The Federation Internationale d’Escrime – A case study.

Presenter: Peter Harmer, Professor of Exercise and Health Science Peter Harmer

Abstract:  The International Olympic Committee (IOC) and sports International Federations (IF) are predicated on inclusiveness and have non-discrimination regulations built into their constitutions and by-laws. However, three Islamic countries have used international sports competitions as extensions of their national policy of non-recognition of Israel by prohibiting their athletes from competing against those from Israel. Despite the clear contravention of the regulations of non-discrimination, these countries have effectively utilized exculpatory explanations, particularly medical conditions, to avoid sanctions. Using a basic epidemiological analytical technique, I have developed data from international fencing events that dismantles this defense and provides a foundation for the IOC and IF to hold these countries accountable for violating this important norm of sports competition.

Bill Kelm and Kathryn Nyman
Faculty Colloquium Coordinators

Faculty Colloquium: Vincent Pham

Please join us on Thursday, February 11, at 4:10 p.m. at this URL:

for our third Faculty Colloquium of the semester.

Title: Community Rhetorics of COVID-19

Presenter: Vincent Pham,  Associate Professor, Department of Civic Communication and Media



Abstract:  The COVID-19 global pandemic has intermeshed itself in our daily lives, (re)shaping our relations with each other and with our institutions. Yet, in the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic,  a search for the origins of the disease is often conducted in order to understand the disease, from where it came, and how the first transmission to humans might have occurred. News coverage, political discourse, and science talk sought to manage uncertainty and allocate blame. While there have been other scapegoats for the origination of a given disease historically and globally, Asians and Asian Americans have become one of the most recognizable objects of blame and derision in United States rhetoric.  In this talk, I examine public discourse in news coverage that construct Asians and Asian Americans as “diseased” themselves and its replication of longstanding tropes about Asians and Asian Americans. I conclude with some future avenues of research related to COVID-19 and its impact on Asian American communities, particularly health workers.

Bill Kelm and Kathryn Nyman
Faculty Colloquium Coordinators


Faculty Colloquium: Meredy Goldberg Edelson

Please join us on Thursday, February 4, at 4:10 p.m. at this URL:

for our second Faculty Colloquium of the semester.

Title: Sexual abuse and child maltreatment: The role of Child Abuse Assessment Centers on legal outcomes, biases that may limit their effects, and their role in a coordinated community response
Presenter: Meredy Goldberg Edelson, Professor of PsychologyMeredy Edelson


Abstract:  When there are cases of sexual abuse or child maltreatment broadly that come to the attention of the authorities, it is important to understand what the legal and systemic responses might be. With regard to sexual abuse specifically, research suggests that the use of child abuse assessment centers (CAACs) result in positive legal outcomes for children. However, even with the use of CAACs, not all children have the same legal advantage. I will present my research that shows that the use of CAACs results in better legal outcomes for sexual abuse cases with female victims than male victims. I will then discuss my research examining potential biases that might account for why the CAAC advantage in legal outcomes seems to only hold for females. Finally, I will discuss my current research examining the role of a CAAC as part of a broad community response to child maltreatment.

Bill Kelm and Kathryn Nyman
Faculty Colloquium Coordinators


Faculty Colloquium: Richard Ellis

Please join us on Thursday, January 28, at 4:10 p.m. at this URL:

for our first Faculty Colloquium of the semester.

Title: Reimagining Democracy: The Socialist Origins of the Initiative and Referendum in the United States
Presenter: Richard Ellis, Mark O. Hatfield Professor of Politics, Policy, Law and Ethics Richard Ellis


Abstract:  The initiative and referendum are commonly characterized as quintessentially Populist or Progressive reforms, but transatlantic socialism deserves pride of place in the intellectual history of direct legislation in the United States. A decade and a half before the People’s Party famously commended the idea of direct legislation at its 1892 nominating convention in Omaha, Nebraska, the Socialist Labor Party (SLP) made the demand for direct legislation a plank in its first party platform. That demand was in turn shaped by the 1875 Gotha Program formulated by the Socialist Workers Party of Germany and informed by socialist debates during the First International and the pioneering work of Moritz Rittinghausen. The diffusion of these ideas among Gilded Age labor radicals is a crucial and underappreciated part of the story of the origins of the initiative and referendum in the US.

Bill Kelm and Kathryn Nyman
Faculty Colloquium Coordinators


Jim Mattingly’s Mural: From Individual Artwork to Community Representation

By Sanja Zelen, Willamette Student

Walking through downtown Salem along High Street, one will see a bright blue, 68-foot-tall mural portraying actors and actresses known for their groundbreaking performances in the 1920s and irreplaceable contributions to the world of theater. The mural, titled “Theatrical Heartscape,” was originally designed and painted by Jim Mattingly and was later renovated by Portland-based artist Dan Cohen. The mural, completed in 1984, serves as not only a striking piece of artwork for Salem to enjoy, but a community-inspired commemoration of Salem’s theatrical history as well.

Theatrical Heartscape mural on the back of the Elsinore Theatre

Theatrical Heartscape mural on the back of the Elsinore Theatre.

James “Jim” Mattingly, the artist behind “Theatrical Heartscape,” was born in 1934. He was an art professor at the Oregon College of Education, known as Western Oregon University today, from 1968 to 1994. He was the head of the art department from 1977 to 1986, founding a printmaking program. His artwork has been displayed in the United States, Australia, and parts of South America, Asia, and Europe. In Salem, he was an active member of the arts community, increasing the Northwest Print Council’s recognition on both the national and international levels.

It was Jim Mattingly’s presence in the Salem arts community that ultimately led him to be selected by the Historic Elsinore Theater to commission a mural for the theater’s East exterior side facing Ferry Street. The goal of the project was to beautify the wall by creating a design representative of the Elsinore’s theatrical culture. Mattingly’s concept stood out from the other artists’ because it incorporated actors and actresses that rose to fame during the early years of the Elsinore, including Theda Bara, Marlene Dietrich, W.C. Fields, and Charlie Chaplin. The community board at Elsinore felt that Mattingly had picked “people of substance” that highlighted the Elsinore’s vaudeville origins. The chosen colors and shapes for the mural− white and black for the actors, red for the hearts, bold three-dimensional boxes that framed the characters, and a blue backdrop− encapsulated the drama, comedy, and excitement of theater.

Mattingly started the mural in 1982 with a $31,000 budget funded by grants from the National Endowment for the Arts, The Oregon Arts Commission’s Art in Public Places, and the City of Salem’s transient occupancy tax. However, it was donations from Salem community members that guaranteed the project’s completion.

Mattingly’s process for creating the mural started out as an individual project and ended as a community effort. Mattingly was permitted to set up butcher paper on the floor of an elementary school gym to sketch out his concept. Artist Don Hoskisson assisted Mattingly in painting the mural. One group of citizens making up the Gorilla Wall Flare dressed up as gorillas to assist in fundraising efforts. Inmates were recruited by prison superintendent Hoyt Cupp to set up the scaffolding for the mural’s creation. A kickoff party in September 1984 celebrated the two-year long project’s completion. Jim Mattingly summarized his appreciation for the community’s involvement and support by saying, “I am really trying to do art for all the people”.

Portland artist Dan Cohen updating the mural.

Portland artist Dan Cohen works on updating the mural in 2013.

The mural started to fade over time, but the community base that the original project had obtained came together once more to fundraise $20,000 for renovations of the mural in 2013, including power washing moss, repainting, and applying a protective layer to the wall. Dan Cohen, a Portland artist known for his murals displaying movie scenes, was selected as the painter to renovate the wall, filling in the missing parts and preserving Mattingly’s previous work. He painted with the goal of honoring the community just as Mattingly had, with the hope that restoration would “bring inspiration and colors into people’s lives” (Cohen as cited by Curtin).

Jim Mattingly’s mural was a success, portraying figures that were later shown on screen at film festivals at the Elsinore and creating an urban art piece to be enjoyed by pedestrians and drivers alike. Mattingly died in 2006, but his legacy lives on through Cohen’s and Salem community members’ 2013 renovations of “Theatrical Heartscape,” which stands as blue and bright today as it did in 1984.

Holiday Greetings

By Susan Irwin, University Archivist

It is that time of year when greeting cards celebrating Christmas, Hanukkah, Kwanzaa, New Year’s (and even the Winter Solstice) are sent to family and friends, near and far. Although ecard purchases are on the rise, Americans purchase and physically mail over one and a half billion holiday cards each year.

The origins of holiday cards date back to 19th century England. In 1843, Sir Henry Cole sent out the first known Christmas card.

The first Christmas card

The first Christmas card (Wikimedia Commons)

Considering the problem of how to send holiday greetings to his large social circle and associates, he commissioned the design of an illustration which he had printed on stiff cardboard with the sentiment, “A Merry Christmas and A Happy New Year To You.”

It took several decades before Christmas cards truly became a common part of holiday celebrations. In the United States, the cost of imported cards was prohibitive for most people, until Louis Prang of Boston started manufacturing Christmas cards in 1875. Prang hosted the first design competition for Christmas cards in 1880. A newspaper article in The New Northwest (Portland, OR) on July 1, 1880 noted that a Boston firm offered prizes for the four best original designs for Christmas cards. Out of the 600 entries, four received prizes. The winner received $1,000 (a little over $25,500 in today’s dollars!).

By the 1920s the format and style of Christmas cards had evolved and become big business. Early Christmas cards were similar to postcards – an image and sentiment on one side and space on the other to write a brief message. Folded cards of various sizes followed until, in 1915, the Hall Brothers company (now known as Hallmark) developed the standard format we use today.

Early Christmas Cards

Selection of American Cards


As Christmas cards evolved, art remained the central focus. Nativity scenes, angels, and robins were common on Victorian era cards. Flowers and nature scenes were the most common images in 19th American Christmas cards. Over time images expanded to include children, families, religious, Santa, humorous, and family homes and photos. It is not surprising then, that holiday cards can be found in the correspondence files of many of our artist collections.



Some examples:

As a child Edith Price Walford, a wood block artist, expressed interest in how her uncle made one of his linoleum block Christmas cards. Corresponding through the mail with him, she learned how to make her own. One of her wood blocks is seen here along with the card she made.

Woodblock Engraving for Christmas card making. Christmas Card made from a woodblock printing.


Rex Amos is known for his assemblage art – three-dimensional art assembled with everyday objects typically gathered by the artist.   His holiday greeting card seen here showcases his art, along with his sense of humor.

Rex Amos Christmas card


Through his work in the Pacific Northwest arts scene, Jack Eyerly maintained correspondence with hundreds of artists, but it is in his family Christmas cards that his own artwork is found. Here he personalized the card for his cat-loving mother.


Jack Eyerly Christmas card.



Ames, Kenneth L., Dover, Caitlin, and Bard Graduate Center for Studies in the Decorative Arts, Design, Culture. American Christmas Cards, 1900-1960. New York, NY] : New Haven [Conn.]: Bard Graduate Center, Decorative Arts, Design History, Material Culture ; Distributed by Yale UP, 2011. Print.

Buday, György. The History of the Christmas Card. London: Spring, 1964. Print.

Edith Price Walford papers, Archives and Special Collections, Mark O. Hatfield Library, Willamette University. Accessed December 04, 2020.

Hane, John. The History of the Christmas Card, Smithsonian Magazine, December 9, 2015. Accessed December 04, 2020.

Jack Eyerly collection on Pacific Northwest Art, Archives and Special Collections, Mark O. Hatfield Library, Willamette University. Accessed December 04, 2020.

Rex Amos papers, Archives and Special Collections, Mark O. Hatfield Library, Willamette University. Accessed December 04, 2020.


Shakespeare’s Second Folio

By Doreen Simonsen
Humanities & Fine Arts Librarian,

Folio Second Edition in Archives
“Dig those crazy hieroglyphics!”
“Pardon me sir, but are you referring to that copy of Shakespeare’s Second Folio which you have in your hand?”

This is how Betsy Perry started her article, “Vault Harbors $1000 Book,” in the January 23, 1959 issue of the Willamette Collegian about the library’s valuable rare books. The “hieroglyphics” were 17th century typesetting, which even 21st century students struggle to read. Typesetting issues are one of the factors that differentiate the Second Folio from its famous sibling, the First Folio, printed in 1623, by William Jaggard for Edward Blount, John Smethwick, and William Aspley. Of the 750 copies printed, only 235 copies of the First Folio remain today.

By 1632, William Jaggard and Edward Blount had died, and the copies of the First Folio had sold out. Thomas Cotes printed all the copies of the Second Folio for five different publishers: John Smethwick, William Aspley, Richard Hawkins, Richard Meighen, and Robert Allot. Each of these publishers owned the copyrights to different plays written by Shakespeare. John Smethwick held the copyright for Hamlet, Romeo and Juliet, Love’s Labour’s Lost, and The Taming of the Shrew. Willamette’s copy of the Second Folio was printed for John Smethwick, which is one of the rarest versions of this work. (Please watch this video from Peter Harrington Booksellers to learn more about the Smethwick version of the Second Folio.) Watermark Example Click on this image to the right to see a close-up of the watermark in a page of our Smethwick Second Folio.

No definite census can be found reporting the number of Second Folio copies printed, but in 1990 there were 178 Second Folios in libraries in the United States, as well as several more in international libraries (Otness, 65). The Folger Shakespeare Library, famous for its collection of 82 First Folios, also owns 58 copies of the Second Folio.

But what is a folio and what makes it so special? Folios are large books comprised of pages that have only been folded once before being gathered into quires (four sheets of paper folded to form eight leaves) that are then stacked and sewn together. During Shakespeare’s life, (1564-1616), many of his plays had been printed in a quarto format, which is half the size of a folio. Folios are meant to be impressive works, like coffee table books. The playwright Ben Jonson, Shakespeare’s contemporary, published a collection of his own plays in a folio version in 1616. Jonson’s and Shakespeare’s folios were the first collections of drama meant to be read as a book, giving printed drama a place of esteem in the world of English literature. In Shakespeare’s time, plays were considered merely low brow entertainments, not worthy of serious study.

By 1632 Shakespeare’s plays were 40 years old, and some of the language used in the First Folio had become dated. The editors of the Second Folios updated some of the language, corrected hundreds of typographical errors, and made “1679 `deliberate editorial’ changes, 459 alterations of grammar, 374 changes affecting the thought, 359 affecting meter, and 357 affecting style, and 130 changes pertaining to the action.” (Black and Shaaber, 45). They added mythological and Classical allusions which the typesetters of the First Folio missed. A good example of this is this quote from Henry VI, Part I, Act I, Scene 4, lines 95-96:

First Folio (1623) example:
First Folio Example



Second Folio (1632) example:

Second Folio Example




Subsequent versions of this play up to the standard versions used today, such as The Complete Pelican Shakespeare (2002), now include the name Nero.

“Plantagenet, I will – and like thee, Nero,
Play on the lute, beholding the towns burn.”

These changes in the text of the Second Folio mark the beginning of Shakespearean scholarship. Second Folio Mark Changed TextIt wasn’t just the editorial work of the publishers of Shakespeare’s Folios that reflect this change in attitude to the words written by Shakespeare.  Readers themselves engaged with the texts of these plays.  They studied their personal copies of the Folios and made annotations in them. The most famous of these annotated copies belonged to King Charles I (1600–1649), son of James I, who inherited the British throne after the death of Queen Elizabeth I. Charles I’s copy with his own annotations is in Windsor Castle, part of the collection of Queen Elizabeth II.  Here you can see the names of favorite characters written in King Charles I own hand.

The other thing that makes the Second Folio distinct from the First Folio is that it contains the first ever published poem by a young, 24-year-old John Milton, the author of Paradise Lost.

John Milton Poem

For a good introduction to the meaning of this poem and the significance of the Second Folio please watch this video of Ari Friedlander, University of Dayton.

In the 1950s, Charles McCulloch, Chairman of the Willamette Board of Trustees, donated the rare 1632 edition of Shakespeare’s Second Folio to the university. In the Willamette University Archives, you can find articles about this generous donation, as well as students’ reactions to seeing the Second Folio and other rare books. (See: McCulloch Gives Rare Cotes Book to WU Library, Benefactor Gives Rare Volume of Shakespeare Plays to Library.)

Over the years, the Second Folio has been brought out of the vault to honor visiting lecturers, (See: Rare Volumes Shown), but more often than not, it has been brought to the Mark O. Hatfield Library’s Instruction Room to show it to students in English and other classes.

Below you can see a group of Theatre History students in November 2015 who were delighted to see the text of Macbeth and check out the watermarks in our 1632 Second Folio. (Some students even took selfies of themselves with the Second Folio).

Students looking at the book in the Instruction Room.

Pandemic-related quarantine issues currently prohibit viewing our rare books in person, but we look forward to the days when students and scholars can come to the Hatfield Library to see our Second Folio for themselves. In the meantime, there are wonderful digital versions that you can enjoy online.  (See: Mr. William Shakespeares comedies, histories, tragedies: published according to the true originall copies. The second impression. )



Black, Matthew W., and Shaaber, M. A. Shakespeare’s Seventeenth-century Editors, 1632-1685. New York, London: Modern Language Association of America; Oxford UP, 1937.

Douglas, Adam. “Shakespeare Second Folio – John Smethwick Imprint, 1632.” Peter Harrington Rare Books. Video.

“Folios of William Shakespeare.” Walter Havighurst Special Collections of the Miami University Libraries at Miami University, Oxford, Ohio.

Friedlander, Ari. “Shakespeare: Second Folio.” University of Dayton. Video.

“King Charles I’s Copy of Shakespeare.” British Library Collection Items.

MacDougall, Bill. “Benefactor Gives Rare Volume of Shakespeare Plays to Library.” Willamette Collegian 19 May 1950: 3.

“McCulloch Gives Rare Cotes Book to WU Library.” The Willamette University Alumnus 6.3 (1950): 5.

Otness, Harold M. The Shakespeare Folio Handbook and Census. New York: Greenwood, 1990. Print. Bibliographies and Indexes in World Literature ; No. 25.

Perry, Betsy. “Vault Harbors $1000 Book.” Willamette Collegian 23 January 1959: 2.

“Rare Volumes Shown” The Willamette University Alumnus 4.3 (1957): 6.

Shakespeare, William. Mr. William Shakespeares Comedies, Histories, and Tragedies. The 2nd Impression. ed. London: Printed by Tho. Cotes, for John Smethwick, and Are to Be Sold at His Shop in Saint Dunstans Church-yard, 1632. Print.

Shakespeare, William, and Alfred Harbage. Complete Pelican Shakespeare. , 2002.

Smith, Emma.  “Wadham’s Four Shakespeare Folios.” Wadham College, University of Oxford. 18th February 2019. Video.

“What Is the Second Folio of William Shakespeare?” Meisei University Shakespeare Collection Database – Meisei Copy,

Faculty Colloquium: Rebecca Dobkins

Please join us on Thursday, November 19, at 4:10 p.m. at this URL:

for our sixth Faculty Colloquium of this semester.

Title: Truth and Reconciliation: A Residency Program for Transformation
Presenter: Rebecca Dobkins, Professor of Anthropology and American Ethnic Studies

Santa Fe Art Institute Participants

Abstract:  The Santa Fe Art Institute is an independent arts organization that hosts annual thematic residencies for critical inquiry and cultural exchange amongst artists and arts practitioners around issues of social justice. In fall 2019, I was honored to be invited as one of many artists, content experts, and innovative thinkers to be in residency to explore how revealing and acknowledging truths can be used to seek healing, change, and redress for communities around the world. In this presentation, I will describe my own project and those of a selected few of my more than 30 co-residents. Prepare to be inspired!

Bill Kelm and Kathryn Nyman
Faculty Colloquium Coordinators

Faculty Colloquium: Xijuan Zhou

Please join us on Thursday, November 12, at 4:10 p.m. at this URL:

for our fifth Faculty Colloquium of this semester.

Title: Rituals and Beliefs Reflected in Pre-Historic Burials in Xinjiang
Presenter: Xijuan Zhou, Associate Professor of Religious Studies

Xijuan Zhou

Abstract:  In recent years, archeologists in Xinjiang, China, excavated a prehistoric burial site Xiaohe. Rich relics, including well-preserved mummies were found from this site. The present project tries to examine both cultural and textual information from this region and tries to interpret some of the burial practices from this site from the perspectives of early shamanic beliefs and practices.

Come join the discussion!

Bill Kelm and Kathryn Nyman
Faculty Colloquium Coordinators