Tree of Giving Results

Thank you all for your donations to this year’s Tree of Giving!  This year we collected 205 books, many of which were brand new.  We also received 21 gloves (plus 1 hat), 1 school bag, 3 pairs of socks.  Thank you everyone for your kind donations!


Faculty Colloquium: Peter Wogan

Please join us on Thursday, January 23rd, at 4:10 p.m. in Ford 204 for our first Faculty Colloquium of this semester.

Presenter: Peter Wogan, Professor of Anthropology Coins in water

Title: Awe and Aesthetics: Coins in Water

Abstract: Why are so many people in the U.S. and elsewhere attracted to the sight of coins lying in shallow water, such as fountains, ponds, and other “wishing wells”? My answers are based on a blend of research traditions in cultural anthropology and social psychology. First, research on aesthetic preferences has repeatedly shown a preference for landscapes with an element of mystery, a sense that more information could be gained through exploration. I suggest that, similarly, coins lying in shallow bodies of clear water present visual mystery through their novel, complicated patterns. Second, reactions to such coins subtly fit the two prototypical qualities of awe: need for mental accommodation, and perceived vastness. I argue that these aesthetic and awe reactions are particularly connected with images of social groups, as well as possible resistance to class inequality and state control.

Students are welcome and coffee and treats will be provided. We look forward to seeing you there. Also, remember to note the move to Thursday afternoons this semester.

Bill Kelm and Stephen Patterson
Faculty Colloquium Coordinators


Women’s Suffrage

Image of Iron Jawed Angels promotional poster

Image source from Wikipedia

By Stephanie Milne-Lane,
Processing Archivist and Records Manager

The ushering in of a new year brings with it thoughts of what the future might bring. But 2020 is unique in that it likewise offers an opportunity to reflect and commemorate. 2020 marks the 100th anniversary of the passage of the 19th amendment, which guaranteed and protected a woman’s constitutional right to vote. While many western states, including Washington (1910) and Oregon (1912), had secured voting rights for white women (at this time in Oregon, Native women and first generation Asian female immigrants were not naturalized citizens and therefore could not vote), it would take several more years and a concerted effort for a national equal suffrage amendment to come to fruition. 

Coalition building and unrelenting hard work eventually led to the United States Congress passing the 19th Amendment on June 4, 1919. However, in order to place the amendment into the Constitution 36 state legislatures had to ratify the amendment. On August 26, 1920, Tennessee became the 36th state to ratify the amendment thereby securing equal voting rights for eligible women. Despite the 19th amendment maintaining “the right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of sex,” barriers stood between women of color and the ballot box. Voter discrimination at the federal and state level prevented Native, Asian, and African American women from voting in elections for decades. It wouldn’t be until the passage of The Voting Rights Act of 1965 — some 45 years after the ratification of the 19th Amendment — that states were forbidden from imposing discriminatory polling laws. With this in mind, as we recognize the importance of the 19th amendment throughout 2020, it is equally important that we understand its limitations. 

Image courtesy of Willamette University’s Archives, Suffrage Era Scrapbook

Opportunities abound to immerse yourself in the suffrage centennial year. There are a plethora of state and local exhibits you can explore online or in person. In Salem, the Oregon State Archives has the Woman Suffrage Centennial Web Exhibit where you can explore memorabilia and documents that relate to the woman suffrage movement in Oregon. The Hatfield Library also has resources relating to the suffrage movement, including the HBO movie Iron Jawed Angels as well as numerous print resources. Additionally, Willamette’s Archives & Special Collections is home to a Suffrage Era Scrapbook that has been digitized. 

Whether you choose to commemorate the 100th anniversary of the 19th Amendment with an exhibit, movie, or book, we encourage you to remember the women leaders who lobbied, marched, and protested for the right — before and after 1920 — to enter the voting booth. 

 

Bibliography: 

Aljazeera. n.d. “Who got the right to vote when? A history of voting rights in America.” Accessed on January 8, 2020. https://interactive.aljazeera.com/aje/2016/us-elections-2016-who-can-vote/index.html

Graham, Sara Hunter. 1996. Woman Suffrage and the New Democracy. New Haven: Yale University Press.

Nineteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, Series: Enrolled Acts and Resolutions of Congress, 1789 – 2013, Record Group 11: General Records of the United States Government, 1778 – 2006, U.S. National Archives. Accessed January 8, 2020. https://catalog.archives.gov/id/596314 

Oregon Secretary of State.n.d. “Origins of the Woman Suffrage Movement in Oregon.” Accessed January 6, 2020. https://sos.oregon.gov/blue-book/Pages/explore/exhibits/woman-intro.aspx

Sneider, Allison L. 2006. Suffragists in an Imperial Age: U.S. Expansion and the Woman Question, 1870-1929. New York: Oxford University Press.

The Oregon Encyclopedia. 2019. “Woman Suffrage in Oregon (essay).” Last updated July 10, 2019. Accessed January 6, 2020. https://oregonencyclopedia.org/articles/woman_suffrage_in_oregon/#.XhTWUxdKii4.

Wheeler, Marjorie Spruill. 1995. “A Short History of the Woman Suffrage Movement in America.” In One Woman, One Vote, edited by Marjorie Pruill Wheeler, 9-20. Troutdale, Oregon: NewSage Press. 

 


Additions to the Betty LaDuke Papers

By Jenny Gehringer
PNAA Processing Archivist

LaDuke painting women and birds Additional materials for the Betty LaDuke papers have been processed and are open to researchers. This collection documents Betty LaDuke’s prolific career as a painter from 1950 to 2018. It includes her photography and sketchbooks from various international and domestic travels as well as materials that document her advocacy and representation of cultural traditions and women artists around the world. This collection also contains personal documents concerning her family and friends.

LaDuke has completed several large-scale projects, including multi-panel exhibitions and murals. Her creative process involves developing a series of sketchbooks and taking numerous photographs during her travels which then form the basis for her larger works and exhibitions. Other thematic elements in her work include animals, rituals, and celebrations, which she uses to illustrate similarities among geographically and traditionally disparate cultures.

LaDuke has exhibited extensively throughout the United States and is represented in many public collections, including Willamette University’s Hallie Ford Museum of Art (HFMA). You can discover LaDuke’s work on campus through rotating exhibits at the HFMA and a permanent display at the third-floor of the Putnam University Center.LaDuke painting Pear Harvest

For more information about this amazing collection, please see the finding aid. You may also access additional information and resources concerning LaDuke and her art through the libguide Betty LaDuke: Social Justice Revisited. The Betty LaDuke papers were processed thanks to the National Historical Publications and Records Commission (NHPRC) grant Willamette University received to increase accessibility to the Pacific Northwest Artists Archive.


Cup of Tea, Anyone?

teapot and cup of teaAs Agatha Christie so wisely said, “Tea! Bless ordinary everyday afternoon tea!” There really is something satisfying about a nice “cuppa” and since January is National Hot Tea Month, we’re taking this opportunity to celebrate this wonderful ancient beverage.  According to the Tea Association of the U.S.A., tea “is the most widely consumed beverage in the world next to water, and can be found in almost 80% of all U.S. households.” Tea was initially used in China for medicinal purposes and there are numerous studies that claim “regular tea consumption supports wellness when combined with a balanced diet and a healthy lifestyle.” So why not fix yourself a nice cup of tea, grab one of the tea-related titles listed on our WU Reads Reading Guide, and join us in celebrating tea, glorious tea!


Student Art Display

We have a new exhibit  in our Student Works Display (first floor of the library) that feature 3-D “sculptures” made of cardboard.  If you are in the neighborhood, please swing by and take a look at these! They will be up for most of spring semester.

 


Books in the Public Domain

This is some news to be thankful about, and possibly to ring in the new year!  A lot of books are now entering the public domain here in the U.S.  For 20 years this process was frozen thanks to the Copyright Term Extension Act of 1998 (also known as the Mickey Mouse Protection Act and Sonny Bono Act).

The process of new books coming into copyright began in January 2019, for titles with a publication year of 1923.   And this coming January we’ll get another installment for titles published in 1924.

The HathiTrust public domain content, an archive of publicly available books numbering in the millions, has been fairly static for a number of years.  However, the number of public domain titles in HathiTrust have increased by 11% (!) and the number of 1923 titles in the public domain jumped by 313%.  Keep in mind that this applies to music and songs too!  In fact, here is a list of holiday carols that shows which songs are in the public domain. Be sure to check this if you’re making any social videos featuring holiday music.

This appears to be a clear sign of what we have to look forward to in coming years!


A “New” Chant for Christmastide

By Doreen Simonsen
Humanities and Fine Arts Librarian

Image Comparing 15th Century Chant Manuscripts

Somewhere in Europe in the 15th century, a choir sang an Alleluia followed by an Offertory on the Feast of the Holy Innocents on December 28th. A page from a book that contained parts of these songs was discovered last summer in the Vault of the Mark O. Hatfield Library. We do not know who donated this manuscript page to the library, but through the help of faculty members in the Music and Classical Studies Departments at Willamette University and elsewhere, we have been able to reveal its secrets and show how it relates to the holiday season.

Image of Medieval & Renaissance Manuscripts

Psalter
France, Paris, between 1495 and 1498
MS M.934 fol. 141r
Morgan Library and Museum

This large sheet of vellum (parchment prepared from animal skin) is 20 ⅞ inches high by 15 ⅔ inches wide and has neumatic (plainsong) notation on a four-line staff with texts in Latin. Chants are written in neumes, which are notes sung on a single syllable.

There is a large Illuminated initial in the lower left-hand corner of second page. (To see how this page and illumination was created, please watch this excellent video, Making Manuscripts, from the Getty Museum.) The reason for the large size of this page was that it was meant to be read by several members of a choir at one time. The expense of creating manuscript books meant that it would be more economical to create one large book for several people to use rather than several smaller books for each person in the choir to hold.

Here is an illustration from a Psalter (A book of Psalms) showing a group of clerics singing from a large book with musical notation, similar in size and format to our manuscript.

Image of manuscript fragmentIdentifying the Texts:
Professors Robert Chenault and Ortwin Knorr of Willamette University’s Department of Classical Studies identified the texts found on these two pages.

This first page (or recto page) contains the following words and word fragments:
…tis eius; laudate eum in firmamen-

And the second page (or verso page) contains the rest of the phrase:
to virtutis eius.

These phrases combine to form the end of this Bible Verse:
Alleluia. Laudate Dominum in sanctis eius; laudate eum in firmamento virtutis eius.

 

 

Image of manuscript fragmentPsalm 150, Verse 1 (King James Version) Praise ye the Lord. Praise God in his sanctuary: praise him in the firmament of his power.

At the bottom of the second (verso) page, they identified the words: Anima no- which Dr. Richard Robbins (University of Minnesota-Duluth) identified as belonging to this verse:

Anima nostra sicut passer erepta est de laqueo venantium; laqueus contritus est, et nos liberati
sumus.

Psalm 123, Verse 7 (King James Version) Our soul is escaped as a bird out of the snare of the fowlers: the snare is broken, and we are escaped.

The two texts are separated by a red abbreviation of the word Offertory.

Identifying the Music
Professor Hector Aguëro of the Music Department at Willamette University shared images of our manuscript with his colleague Professor Richard Robbins, Director of Choral Activities at the University of Minnesota-Duluth and a scholar of choral music, especially Italian sacred music of the early Baroque.

Dr. Robbins identified our manuscript as possibly being part of a Gradual, which is a book containing chants used in the Catholic Mass throughout the year. Robbins identified the first text and melody as the end of an alleluia verse, specifically Laudate Deum (mode IV). The second melody is an offertory on the text Anima Nostra (mode II).

Both of these chants can be found in the Liber Usualis, a book of commonly used Gregorian chants in the Catholic tradition.

Image of Alleluia Chant

The notation on the library’s manuscript starts at the red line in the Alleluia above, and it ends at the red line in the Offertory Anima No|stra below.

Image of Anima Nostra Chant

You can hear a performance and follow the texts of both chants here:

Alleluia, Laudate Deum
Offertory: Anima Nostra

The text of our missal differs from that of the Liber Usualis because of its early date. It was likely written in the 15th century, and, as Dr. Robbin explains, that means it was written before the Council of Trent (1545–63) codified the Catholic Mass and the order of the chants. There was a great deal of variety in Missals before the Council of Trent, so one cannot be sure when these melodies were used during the liturgical year. However, according to Dr. Robbins, these tunes match the tunes that appear in the Holy Innocents / Epiphanytide sections in post-Trent missals.

Ornate illuminated letter D shows Jesus riding Donkey colt

Dr. Robbins also pointed out that the illuminated letter A is ornate, which would have also been more appropriate for a Christmas use. The fancy illuminated letter A is probably also the reason we only have just one sheet from this gradual. These pages could contain ornate decorations and for this reason, they were frequently removed from graduals and treated as single artworks. Here you can see similar gradual pages from the Metropolitan Museum of Art. And this page shows the entry of Jesus into Jerusalem on Palm Sunday, all within the large initial D.

Teaching with a 15th Century Manuscript
The best thing about discovering this “new” manuscript in the vault was being able to share it with the students and faculty of Willamette University. In September 2019, as part of his Music History I course, Professor Aguëro had his Music History students transcribe the music written on the library’s Chant manuscript. Here you can see them displaying their work. It was such a delight to have students work with a manuscript from the library’s Rare Books Collection.

Image of Professor Professor Aguëro and his Music History I class

From left to right: Ethan Frank, Matt Elcombe, Professor Aguëro, Sam Strawbridge, Kate Grobey, and Sophie Gourlay

Acknowledgments

Many thanks to Professors Robert Chenault and Ortwin Knorr of the Department of Classical Studies and Professor Hector Aguëro of the Department of Music at Willamette University, and especially to Professor Richard Robbins, Director of Choral Activities at the University of Minnesota-Duluth. Their combined scholarship helped us explicate the text and illuminate the value and beauty of this seasonal manuscript.

 

Bibliography

Abbey of Solesmes. The Liber Usualis 1961. Internet Archive, http://archive.org/details/TheLiberUsualis1961. Accessed 27 Nov. 2019.

Anima Nostra Sicut Passer Erepta Est. YouTube, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2UrXb2QUSsI. Accessed 27 Nov. 2019.

“Bartolomeo Di Domenico Di Guido | Manuscript Leaf with Entry into Jerusalem on Palm Sunday in an Initial D, from a Gradual | Italian | The Met.” The Metropolitan Museum of Art, https://www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/469046. Accessed 27 Nov. 2019.

Chant Manuscript, ca. 15th Century. https://libmedia.willamette.edu/commons/item/id/163. Accessed 27 Nov. 2019.

Council of Trent. Sacrosancti et œcumenici Concillii Tridentini Pavlo III, Ivlio III, et Pio IV, PP. MM. celebrati canones et decreta. Apud Cornab Egmond et Socios, 1644.

“Council of Trent | Definition, Summary, Significance, Results, & Facts.” Encyclopedia Britannicahttps://www.britannica.com/event/Council-of-Trent. Accessed 27 Nov. 2019.

Gregorian Chant Notation. http://www.lphrc.org/Chant. Accessed 27 Nov. 2019.

Laudate Deum – Gregorian Chant, Catholic Hymns. YouTube, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kaVnBFhiwqU. Accessed 27 Nov. 2019.

Making Manuscripts. YouTube, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nuNfdHNTv9o&feature=youtu.be. Accessed 27 Nov. 2019.

Psalter, MS M.934 Fol. 141r – Images from Medieval and Renaissance Manuscripts – The Morgan
Library & Museum. http://ica.themorgan.org/manuscript/page/120/77003. Accessed 27 Nov. 2019

Robbins, Richard. “Re: Newly discovered 15th c. Chant manuscript.” Received by Hector Aguero, 22 Aug. 2019.


Home Sweet Home

During this time of year when holidays abound, our thoughts often turn to “going home.” The concept of home is a powerful one but “home” means many different things to different people.  For some, it is a cozy place where they feel the most comfortable just being who they are.  In the winter, perhaps it is a house with a fire in the fireplace, a friendly lap kitty, a cup of hot cocoa, and a good book.  Or maybe “home” has more to do with the people that live there—family or friends or both! In any event, “home” must resonate with a lot of us or there wouldn’t be all those pithy sayings about the notion of home such as:

 

East, west, home’s best.

Hearth and home.

Home is where the heart is.

Make yourself at home.

There is no place like home.

Welcome home.

 

Whatever home means to you, here’s hoping your home is a happy one!  And while we’re on the subject of “home,” why not take a look at our WU Reads Reading Guide for a selection of home-related books available in the library?


Finals Week: Extended Study Hours

The Hatfield Library will be providing extended hours for final exams this fall. Branches on snow.

Also, don’t forget about the free cookies provided by Bon Appetit and coffee provided by the library…usually the cookies are made available after 10 p.m. Cookies will be available on Dec. 10th, 11th, 12th, and 13th each night until they run out.

These are the hours for the end of the term:

Friday, Dec. 6 — 7:45 a.m. – 1 a.m.
Saturday, Dec. 7 — 9 a.m. – 1 a.m.
Sunday, Dec. 8 — 9 a.m. – 3 a.m.
Monday, Dec. 9 – Thursday, Dec. 12 — 7:45 a.m. – 3 a.m.
Friday, Dec. 13 — 7:45 a.m. – 1 a.m.
Saturday, Dec. 14 — 9 a.m. – 7 p.m.
Sunday, Dec. 15 — CLOSED

Winter break begins on Monday, Dec. 16. During the break, the library will be open Monday-Friday from 8 a.m. to 5 p.m. and closed on the weekends. Also, the library (and the rest of campus) will be closed from Dec. 23 through Jan. 5. Regular hours resume on Jan. 21.


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